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When did the paleozoic era start

During the Paleozoic Era, the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America began to form. The map shows Earth's continents at about 50 million years ago, after the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. Since then, North America has continued to move farther away from Africa and Eurasia.The Ordovician 490 to 443 Million Years Ago. The Ordovician period began approximately 490 million years ago, with the end of the Cambrian, and ended around 443 million years ago, with the beginning of the Silurian.At this time, the area north of the tropics was almost entirely ocean, and most of the world's land was collected into the southern super …The oldest known vascular plants in the Northern Hemisphere are Devonian. The vegetation of the early Devonian consisted primarily of small plants, the tallest being only a meter tall. By the end of the Devonian, ferns, horsetails and seed plants had also appeared, producing the first trees and the first forests. When geologic time is compressed to the scale of a calendar year…. 1 day =12,600,000 years. 1 second = about 146 years. At this scale, World War II began about ...The Paleozoic (meaning "old animals") era spans roughly from 542 mya to 251 mya (ICS 2004) and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian.. The start of the Paleozoic era, between roughly 542 mya and 530 mya, is a time when a large number of body …The temperature of a planet is linked with the diversity of life that it can support. MIT geologists have now reconstructed a timeline of the Earth’s temperature during the early Paleozoic era, between 510 and 440 million years ago — a pivotal period when animals became abundant in a previously microbe-dominated world.The Mesozoic Era begins with the Triassic Period. This era is popularly known as the “Age of Reptiles” and for good reason: reptiles, and particularly dinosaurs, ... > Paleozoic. Permian: 298.9 to 251.9 MYA. Pennsylvanian: 323.2 to 298.9 MYA. Mississippian: 358.9 to 323.2 MYA.Relatives of insects, crabs, and spiders, there were over 20,000 trilobite species that lived between the Cambrian and the end of the Paleozoic Era when they went extinct, some 252 million years ago. Prolific survivors with a segmented body plan that could be easily modified and altered, they soon dominated the seafloor. The Paleozoic took up over half — approximately 300 million years (542 mya to 251 mya)* — of the Phanerozoic. During the Paleozoic there were six major continental land masses; each of these consisted of different …5.0 (6 reviews) The Hadean Eon. Choose one: A. is a span of time during which the Earth's surface was entirely molten. B. is a span of time that equates to the late heavy bombardment. C. is the span of time between the formation of the Earth and the age of the oldest known rocks. D. is the span of time before the formation of the Earth.In geologic time , the Paleozoic Era, the first era in the Phanerozoic Eon , covers the time between roughly 544 million years ago (mya) and until 245 mya. The Paleozoic Era spans six geologic time periods including the Cambrian Period (544 to 500 mya); Ordovician Period (500 mya to 440 mya); Silurian (440 mya to 410 mya); Devonian (410 mya to ...When did the Paleozoic Era start? 4.5 billion years ago. 542 million years ago. 64 million years ago. 2 years ago. None of the above. What order do the periods go in? Permian, Devonian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Silurian. Silurian, Cambrian, Carboniferous, Permian, Devonian, Ordovician.The Devonian, part of the Paleozoic era, is otherwise known as the Age of Fishes, as it spawned a remarkable variety of fish. The most formidable of them were the armored placoderms, ...The Paleozoic Era begins with the Cambrian Period (541 million years ago) and ends with the Permian Period (252 million years ago). The oldest fossil teeth that can be attributed with certainty to Chondrichthyes were discovered in the Lower Devonian of Spain and have been dated to approximately 418 million years ago.What major change did animal start to have during the Paleozoic era Protection and sturdy frame for animals to grow larger. Allowed animals to have a more stable internal environmentIn Paleozoic Era: Paleozoic geography. Laurentia, a craton primarily made up of present-day North America and Greenland, was rotated 90° clockwise from its present orientation and sat astride the paleoequator during Cambrian times. Laurentia was separated from Gondwana by the Iapetus Ocean. The smaller Baltica craton was positioned within the….The Cambrian Period. The Cambrian Period marks an important point in the history of life on Earth; it is the time when most of the major groups of animals first appear in the fossil record. This event is sometimes called the "Cambrian Explosion," because of the relatively short time over which this diversity of forms appears. Aug 10, 2012 · The Ordovician* lasted about 45 million years and saw the transition from very primitive to relatively modern life-forms in the seas. The “Ordovician radiation” which followed the late Cambrian extinctions, lead to a tripling of marine diversity, the greatest increase in the history of life, and giving the highest levels of diversity seen during the Paleozoic Era. The force of its movement pressed the floor of a Paleozoic sea deep into the earth’s mantle, where, in effect, it melted. ... The next period, in Colwell’s telling, begins …Paleozoic Plate Tectonics. The Paleozoic era began with the splitting up of the supercontinent Rodinia, and ended with the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea.; Pangaea was the last supercontinent on Earth, and …The Mesozoic Era is the age of the dinosaurs and lasted almost 180 million years from approximately 250 to 65 million years ago. This era includes 3 well known periods called the Triassic , Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods. A mass-extinction marked the beginning and end of the Mesozoic Era. The event that caused the transition from the ...The Paleozoic Era, which ran from 541 million to 251.9 million years ago, was a time of great change on Earth. The era began with the breakup of one supercontinent and the formation of another. Plants became widespread. And the first vertebrate animals colonized land. The Paleozoic began with the Cambrian Period, 53 million years ...The previous major icehouse phase occurred between about 359 million and about 252 million years ago, during the Carboniferous and Permian periods of the late Paleozoic Era. Glacial sediments dating to this period have been identified in much of Africa as well as in the Arabian Peninsula , South America, Australia, India, and Antarctica.The Paleozoic Era began about 541 million years ago and lasted till 251.9 million years ago. It was the first era of the Phanerozoic Eon and is otherwise known as the “Age of Ancient Life.”. The other two eras that follow this are the Mesozoic (age of middle life) and the Cenozoic (age of recent life). The Precambrian Eon predates the ...This last point in time is the start of a division of geological time called the Phanerozoic Eon. ... paleozoic-era. The Paleozoic era begins with the Cambrian ...The Cambrian Period (/ ˈ k æ m b r i. ə n, ˈ k eɪ m-/ KAM-bree-ən, KAYM-; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian lasted 53.4 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran Period 538.8 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician Period 485.4 …Paleozoic Era, or Palaeozoic Era , Major interval of geologic time, c. 542–251 million years ago. Permian Period, in geologic time, the last period of the Paleozoic Era. The Permian Period began 298.9 million years ago and ended 252.2 million years ago, extending from the close of the …The Cambrian Period is part of the Paleozoic Era. The International Subcommittee on Cambrian Stratigraphy maintains a page with lots of technical information on the Cambrian. You can also take a look at the University of Calgary's exhibit on the Burgess Shale , in present-day British Columbia, a Middle Cambrian site known for its excellent …During the Paleozoic Era, around 335 mya, smaller landmasses joined to form a single supercontinent, Pangaea. Pangaea was surrounded by a superocean called Panthalassa. The end of the Paleozoic Era was marked by the Permian–Triassic Extinction Event, also known as “The Great Dying”. During this time, 95% of all species became extinct ...Table of Contents. Plant - Evolution, Paleobotany, Photosynthesis: At present, fossil evidence of land plants dates to the Ordovician Period. The abundance and diversity of plant fossils increase into the Silurian Period, and by the middle Devonian Period, the heterosporous life cycle, which allows for more rapid evolution, had occurred ...Oct 20, 2023 · The Cenozoic Era is generally divided into three periods: the Paleogene (66 million to 23 million years ago), the Neogene (23 million to 2.6 million years ago), and the Quaternary (2.6 million years ago to the present); however, the era has been traditionally divided into the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. The Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras. The Geologic Time Scale is the history of the Earth broken down into four spans of time marked by various events, such as the emergence of certain species, their evolution, and their extinction, that help distinguish one era from another. Strictly speaking, Precambrian Time is not an ...Meet the Fish of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. Wikimedia Commons. The first vertebrates on the planet, prehistoric fish lay at the root of hundreds of millions of years of animal evolution. On the following slides, you'll find pictures and detailed profiles of over 30 different fossil fish, ranging from Acanthodes to Xiphactinus. 02.When did the Paleozoic era start and end? The Paleozoic Era occurred from about 541 million years ago to about 252 million years ago. When was the most rapid evolution of animals? The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life. The Cambrian period, occurring between approximately 542–488 million years ago, marks the most rapid evolution of new animal ...The paleozoic era is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. This era spanned from roughly 542 million years ago to roughly 251 million years ago. The Paleozoic era is subdivided into six geologic periods: the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian.Table of Contents. Plant - Evolution, Paleobotany, Photosynthesis: At present, fossil evidence of land plants dates to the Ordovician Period. The abundance and diversity of plant fossils increase into the Silurian Period, and by the middle Devonian Period, the heterosporous life cycle, which allows for more rapid evolution, had occurred ...The prior Paleozoic was the era when most of the basic animal body plans came into existence. Following the Paleozoic era, the Mesozoic era lasted roughly 180 million years: From 251 million years ago (mya) to when the Cenozoic era began 65 mya.Sep 21, 2023 · Devonian Period, in geologic time, an interval of the Paleozoic Era that follows the Silurian Period and precedes the Carboniferous Period, spanning between about 419.2 million and 358.9 million years ago. It is sometimes called the ‘Age of Fishes’ because of the diverse and abundant fishes found in Devonian seas. The fourth period of the Paleozoic era in the geological time scale, begins 412 million years ago and spans 58 million years. Age of the fishes. First seed plants and insects appeared. First amphibians appeared. Ended in massive extinction to a meteorite. The name is derived from a county in England, where rocks of this age are extensively ...Introduction. The Paleozoic Era was a major interval of geologic time. It began 541 million years ago with a rapid expansion of life-forms and ended 252 million years ago with the largest mass extinction in Earth’s history. The Paleozoic was the first of the three major eras of the Phanerozoic Eon; this is reflected in its name: paleozoic is ... The Paleozoic Era started 542 million years ago with the emergence of complex life forms and ended 251 million years ago with the largest mass extinction the world has ever experienced. It is the ...When did the Paleozoic Era begin and end? (Give actual dates from Geologic time Scale) 541 Ma - 252 Ma 2. List the 7 periods of the Paleozoic Era in order, spelled correctly, …It started approximately 590 million years ago when the continents formed one large super continent called the Gondwana. This super continent included all of ...Only after 540 million years ago, in the Paleozoic Era, did the atmosphere really start to fill up. Finally, close to 350 million years ago, oxygen reached something close to current-day levels.The Paleozoic Era started 542 million years ago with the emergence of complex life forms and ended 251 million years ago with the largest mass extinction the world has ever experienced. It is the ...Introduction. The Paleozoic Era was a major interval of geologic time. It began 541 million years ago with a rapid expansion of life-forms and ended 252 million years ago with the largest mass extinction in Earth’s history. The Paleozoic was the first of the three major eras of the Phanerozoic Eon; this is reflected in its name: paleozoic is ... In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian …Evidence of a buildup of atmospheric oxygen first appears in rock layers 2,200-1,900 million years old, during which time most of the planet's exposed surface rusts. By 1,900 mya, oxygen composes ...The Paleozoic Era, which ran from 541 million to 251.9 million years ago, was a time of great change on Earth. The era began with the breakup of one supercontinent and the formation of another. Plants became widespread. And the first vertebrate animals colonized land. The Paleozoic began with the Cambrian Period, 53 million years ...The name Paleozoic was first used by Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) in 1838 [4] to describe the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. It was redefined by John Phillips (1800–1874) in 1840 to in cover the Cambrian to Permian periods. [5] It is derived from the Greek palaiós (παλαιός, "old") and zōḗ (ζωή, "life") meaning "ancient life". [6] The start of the Paleozoic era, between roughly 542 mya and 530 mya, is a time when a large number of body plans appears for the first time in the fossil record. This Cambrian explosion , as it is called, offers a particularly stimulating challenge for all who would attempt to explain the phenomena.The term ‘Paleozoic’ has been derived from Greek words: palaiosmeaning ‘ancient’ and zoe meaning ‘life’. This era spans around 200 million years from about 542 to 252 M.A. (million years ago), and is the largest one in terms of time-span. It’s the first era of the Phanerozoic Eon, marking the beginning of life on our planet. The Second era of the World. The time period between the Precambrian and Mesozoic periods that lasted for nearly 340 million years is the Paleozoic era. This era is divided into several periods like the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian. The Cambrian period was the first part of this era which started ...Aug 24, 2022 · The Paleozoic Era is one of the six geologic eras, and it lasted from 541 to 248 million years ago. The Paleozoic Era is divided into the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian periods. How did Paleozoic Era start? The Paleozoic Era began about 541 million years ago and lasted until about 248 million years ago. The Paleozoic is subdivided into six geologic periods : The Paleozoic Era is the first of three geological eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. Beginning 538.8 million years ago , it succeeds the Neoproterozoic and ends 251.9 Ma at the start of the Mesozoic Era.Paleozoic Era In geologic time , the Paleozoic Era, the first era in the Phanerozoic Eon , covers the time between roughly 544 million years ago (mya) and until 245 mya. ... The start of the Paleozoic Era marks the point at which life developed to a variety or organisms capable of leaving fossils.Forward to Cenozoic Era Paleobiology. Mesozoic Era (245 to 65 mya) One of the most striking events in the Mesozoic Era was the rise to dominance of dinosaurs in terrestrial ecosystems. The Mesozoic lasted from 245 to 65 million years ago, and is divided into three periods. The Mesozoic, which derives its name from the Greek with a rough meaning ...When did the hadean era begin and end? 3 months ago. Reply; The Hadean Era began about 4.5 billion years ago and ended about 3.9 ... Within the Phanerozoic eon, the Paleozoic era (541-252 million years ago) is particularly known for the proliferation of marine invertebrate fossils, including trilobites, brachiopods, and early ...

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The start of the Paleozoic era, between roughly 542 mya and 530 mya, is a time when a large number of body plans appears for the first time in the fossil record. This Cambrian explosion , as it is called, offers a particularly stimulating challenge for all who would attempt to explain the phenomena. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like 1. When did the Paleozoic Era begin and end? (Give actual dates from Geologic time Scale), 2. List the 7 periods of the Paleozoic Era in order, spelled correctly, from oldest to youngest:, 3. The Paleozoic era spanned from 540 to 252 million years ago (mya) and represents the first era of diverse, complex life on Earth. The name Paleozoic means “ ...Precambrian Time. Learn more about the period that occurred 4.5 billion to 542 million years ago. Precambrian time covers the vast bulk of the Earth's history, starting with the planet's creation ... According to a 2022 report from the United Nations Environment Programme, global demand for "sand resources" has tripled in the past two decades, to something like a hundred trillion pounds a ...During the middle Ordovician Period (about 480-440 million years ago), a change in plate motions set the stage for the first Paleozoic mountain building event (Taconic orogeny) in North America. The once quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a very active plate boundary when a neighboring oceanic plate, the Iapetus, collided with …When did the Paleozoic Era start and end? 300 M.Y. Ago to about 251 M.Y. Ago. Sets with similar terms. 06SCI Chapter 11, Lesson 2 - The Paleozoic Era. 18 terms. The Paleozoic Era, which ran from 541 million to 251.9 million years ago, was a time of great change on Earth. The era began with the breakup of one supercontinent and the formation of...Devonian Period, in geologic time, an interval of the Paleozoic Era that follows the Silurian Period and precedes the Carboniferous Period, spanning between about 419.2 million and 358.9 million years ago. It is sometimes called the ‘Age of Fishes’ because of the diverse and abundant fishes found in Devonian seas.Paleozoic Era (541 million years ago to 252 million years ago) During the Paleozoic Era, which lasted 289 million years, plants and reptiles began moving from the sea to the …The first known major mass extinction event occurred during the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era on the Geologic Time Scale. At this time in the history of Earth, life was in its early stages. The first known life forms appeared about 3.6 billion years ago, but by the Ordovician Period, larger aquatic life forms had come into existence.Devonian Period, in geologic time, an interval of the Paleozoic Era that follows the Silurian Period and precedes the Carboniferous Period, spanning between about 419.2 million and 358.9 million years ago.The Devonian Period is sometimes called the “Age of Fishes” because of the diverse, abundant, and, in some cases, bizarre types of …Paleozoic Plate Tectonics. The Paleozoic era began with the splitting up of the supercontinent Rodinia, and ended with the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea.; Pangaea was the last supercontinent on Earth, and …How long ago did the mesozoic era start and last. Started 544 million years ago and lasted 300 million years. ... How long did the paleozoic era start and last.Silurian Period, Interval of geologic time, 443.4–419.2 million years ago, the third period of the Paleozoic Era.The Silurian follows the Ordovician Period and precedes the Devonian.It marks the first appearance of land plants and jawed fishes. During most of this period, a vast ocean covered the northern polar region, the supercontinent of Gondwana stretched …Mesozoic. Mesozoic (252-66 million years ago) means 'middle life' and this is the time of the dinosaurs. This era includes the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods, names that may be familiar to you. It ended with a massive meteorite impact that caused a mass extinction, wiping out the dinosaurs and up to 80% of life on Earth.....

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"Aug 10, 2023 · When did the paleozoic era start? The Paleozoic era started about 544-245 million years ago. It came just after the Precambrian era and just before the Mesozoic era. Cambrian Case Index Geologic Time Scale. The Cambrian* Period begins the Phanerozoic Eon, the last 542 million years during which fossils with hard parts have existed. It is the first division of the Paleozoic Era (542Ma -251Ma). Marine animals with mineralized skeletons make their first appearance in the shallow seas of the Cambrian, though ...Paleozoic Era, or Palaeozoic Era , Major interval of geologic time, c. 542–251 million years ago.The Paleozoic was the first of the three major eras of the Phanerozoic Eon; this is reflected in its name: paleozoic is derived from the Greek term for “ancient life.”. The Paleozoic is divided into six periods. From oldest to youngest, they are the Cambrian (541 million to 485 million years ago), Ordovician (485 million to 443 million ...The Paleozoic Era ended with the largest extinction in Earth’s history. The Permian-Triassic Extinction vanquished 96% of all marine species. About 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species were wiped out. Opinions vary about the Permian-Triassic Extinction cause. But the consensus is that it was from a major asteroid impact event.The Paleozoic Era is one of the six geologic eras, and it lasted from 541 to 248 million years ago. The Paleozoic Era is divided into the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian periods. How did Paleozoic Era start? The Paleozoic Era began about 541 million years ago and lasted until about 248 million years ago.The Paleozoic Era began about 541 million years ago and lasted till 251.9 million years ago. It was the first era of the Phanerozoic Eon and is otherwise known as the "Age of Ancient Life.". The other two eras that follow this are the Mesozoic (age of middle life) and the Cenozoic (age of recent life). The Precambrian Eon predates the ...Learn more about the time period that took place 488 to 443 million years ago. During the Ordovician period, part of the Paleozoic era, a rich variety of marine life flourished in the vast seas ... Mesozoic. Mesozoic (252-66 million years ago) means 'middle life' and this is the time of the dinosaurs. This era includes the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods, names that may be familiar to you. It ended with a massive meteorite impact that caused a mass extinction, wiping out the dinosaurs and up to 80% of life on Earth....

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Take a journey back through the history of the Earth — jump to a specific time period using the time scale below and examine ancient life, climates, and geography. You might wish to start in the Cenozoic Era (65.5 million years ago to the present) and work back through time, or start with ... Paleozoic (542.0 to 251.0 mya) Permian (299.0 to ...Twitter appears to have officially killed off its legacy blue check marks, one of the last remaining vestiges of the pre-Elon Musk era. Twitter appears to have officially killed off its legacy blue check marks, one of the last remaining ves...Feb 22, 2022 · Paleozoic Era, from approximately 543 to 252 MYA, ... The ice ages would start in the next geological Era. It was a time of transition because so much of life had gone extinct. Some estimates are ... Relatives of insects, crabs, and spiders, there were over 20,000 trilobite species that lived between the Cambrian and the end of the Paleozoic Era when they went extinct, some 252 million years ago. Prolific survivors with a segmented body plan that could be easily modified and altered, they soon dominated the seafloor.Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. Paleozoic Resources. The Paleozoic Era is further divided in to seven periods/sub-periods: the Cambrian, the Ordovician, the Silurian, the Devonian, the Mississippian, the Pennsylvanian, the ...Carboniferous Period, fifth interval of the Paleozoic Era, succeeding the Devonian Period and preceding the Permian Period. In terms of absolute time, the Carboniferous Period began approximately 358.9 million years ago and ended 298.9 million years ago. Its duration of approximately 60 million.The Paleozoic Era had 6 major periods, the Cambrian, Ordivician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous (often split into the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian), ...The Paleozoic era refers to the earliest time of the three (3) geologic eras during the Phanerozoic era. Generally, the Paleozoic era is typically considered to be the longest geologic era of the Phanerozoic era because it started 541 million years ago and ended about 252 million years ago.Permian Period, in geologic time, the last period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from 298.9 million to 252.2 million years ago. The climate was warming throughout Permian times, and, by the end of the period, hot and dry conditions were so extensive that they caused a crisis in Permian marine and terrestrial life.Silurian. In Geological time, the Silurian period is the third period of the Paleozoic era. It started 443.8 million years ago and ended 419.2 million years ago, extending from the ending of the Ordovician period to the beginning of the Devonian period. During this period, continents' highlands were much lower and sea level was rising....

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The oldest or first era is the Precambrian, which includes the time from the formation of the earth up to about 600 million years ago. After the Precambrian was the Paleozoic Era (paleozoic means "early life"), and it lasted from 600 million to about 240 million years ago. The succeeding eras are the Mesozoic (middle life) and Cenozoic (recent ...The Devonian Period occurred from 419.2 million to 358.9 million years ago. It was the fourth period of the Paleozoic Era. It was preceded by the Silurian Period and followed by the Carboniferous ...The start of the Paleozoic Era began with the Cambrian explosion which was a rapid abundance of new organisms arriving in the fossil record over a relatively short period of geologic time. What are two pieces of evidence used to support the theory that dinosaurs became extinct as a result of volcanic eruptions about 65 million years ago?.Introduction to the Mesozoic Era. 248 to 65 Million Years Ago. The Mesozoic is divided into three time periods: the Triassic (245-208 Million Years Ago), the Jurassic (208-146 Million Years Ago), and the Cretaceous (146-65 Million Years Ago).. Mesozoic means "middle animals", and is the time during which the world fauna changed drastically from that …The prior Paleozoic was the era when most of the basic animal body plans came into existence. Following the Paleozoic era, the Mesozoic era lasted roughly 180 million years: From 251 million years ago (mya) to when the Cenozoic era began 65 mya.Online exhibits: Geologic time scale The Paleozoic Era The Paleozoic is bracketed by two of the most important events in the history of animal life. At its beginning, multicelled animalsunderwent a dramatic "explosion"in diversity, and almost all living animal phyla appeared within a few millions of years.Cenozoic (66 million years ago until today) means ‘recent life.’ During this era, plants and animals look most like those on Earth today. Periods of the Cenozoic Era are split into even smaller parts known as Epochs, so you will see even more signposts in this Era. Cenozoic signposts are colored yellow. The most recent glaciation period, often known simply as the “Ice Age,” reached peak conditions some 18,000 years ago before giving way to the interglacial Holocene epoch 11,700 years ago. or...

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